Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Managing New IT Implementation in Business Firms

Question: Discuss about theManaging New IT Implementation in Business Firms. Answer: Introduction: New technology implementation is a common activity in business companies. For example, business companies implement new software systems such as ERP, CRM, etc. for automating business processes and integrate different functions for monitoring performance and profits. This topic is chosen because companies implement new technologies, systems, and software and applications to improve business outcomes and to sustain themselves in the competition. The topic is researchable because in general, new technology implementation can bring significant changes in the way normal work is being done on a day-to-day basis. Changes refer to modifications in business operations, style of working, a new approach in doing business processes and user or employee acceptance changes/employee satisfaction. The management is responsible for ensuring employees adapt quickly to change and are able to perform their jobs productively (Cooper and Zmud, 1990). It is important to note that implementing new technology systems in the firm is ITs responsibility, but at the same time managing changes and impact post-implementation is the responsibility of the management. New technology implementations, in general, create an interest, but at the same time the organization is impacted with many challenges such as lack of skills felt by employees, centralization of control, lack of autonomy, complexities due to new technology and job uncertainty. These challenges are unavoidable in any new IT implementation (Zolla, 1999). This project will understand business management challenges and follows the method of a survey questionnaire specific to new technology implementation to understand employee satisfaction in a changed environment. The management perspectives are also considered and the data collected from employees is analyzed to identify possible solutions to overcome challenges in new technology implementation and also understand employee perceptions to change. Literature Review This section provides a brief review of literature related to the chosen topic. Business firms implement new technologies to changing business trends (online portals, e-commerce and so on) (Tost, 2010). New technologies generate value in the company but with multiple challenges in managing the new implementation (Barton and Krus, 1985). IT is viewed as a competitive tool for restructuring and improving operational effectiveness in business organizations (Turner and Laudon, 1988). Gorry and Morton (1971) stated IT is used for managerial decision making which gave rise to a new tool named decision support system (DSS). OBrien and Marakas (2011) emphasized that DSS can help organizations achieve more competitiveness. According to Klein and Sorra (1996), new IT implementations must ensure commitment of members involved otherwise, the company can run into adoption issues. Daniel et al. (2002) regarded IT implementations provide significant impact in routine activities. A systematic challenge faced by companies while developing the conditions for new IT implementations was provided by Raza and Standing (2008). There are many employee related issues in adapting to a new environment (Banerjee, 2013). Premkumar and Roberts (1999) explained the phases in new technology adoption for management. Likewise, Weng and Hung (2014) provided the points for a smooth transition and minimizing issues in IT implementations in general. Adoption of new technologies follows certain frameworks such as technology acceptance model (Davis, 1989), a theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen, 1991), diffusion of innovation (Rogers, 1983), technology, organization and environment (Tornatzky and Fleischer, 1990) and so on. Research Questions The following are the research questions: How do organizations manage the problems in new IT implementation? Why are business companies forced to adopt new technologies? How to manage changes within the firm after a new IT implementation? How can new technology implementations be made successful? Objectives The project will understand the challenges faced by organizations while new IT system is implemented. The objectives are: Emphasize the role played by technology in organizations Explore the influencing factors that lead to new technology adoption Explain the role of management in IT Perform a survey to understand the issues in technology adoption Analyse data and explore possible solutions from results of analysis Evaluate and discuss results in resolving issues while implementing new technology Methodology The chosen topic relates to a management problem faced by a firm while undergoing significant changes in its working styles or culture and business operations. The issues arise due to human behaviour hence standard practices in research methodology are followed. The methodology will provide impetus to demonstrate the objectives of this research and to identify appropriate answers to research questions. Research strategy helps the researcher to adopt a practical approach to understanding thoughts and reactions of employees in the firm who are impacted by new IT systems. Research strategies and methods support investigators to derive meaningful approaches to organizational problems (Saunders et al. 2009). In this research, a deductive approach along with inductive method is followed. This is because the results of research must provide answers to research questions for this topic. The deductive approach follows quantitative analysis which is required here. Data is collected through a survey questionnaire. The questionnaire is administered to all employees in the organization at all levels. The survey questionnaire will have set of question statements to understand user acceptance in a new IT environment. The question statements will cover the following areas related to technology acceptance model (TAM). Ease of use Compatibility User satisfaction Usability Usefulness of the new system Each question statements will have the options: Fully Agree, Agree to some extent, Neutral, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree. Each user will choose one of these options for each question statement. This forms the deductive approach. In addition to this, the user can also provide subjective feedback for each question statement to express his/her thoughts and perceptions for each question statement. This subjective or qualitative information is also compiled and grouped to understand employee perceptions. This forms inductive deduction. Outcome The data collected quantitatively is analyzed to understand how employees feel in a changed IT environment in terms of usefulness, compatibility, levels of satisfaction and so on. The sample size of this survey is the number of employees in the organization who are affected by new IT system used for daily work. For instance, the analysis can provide the percentage of satisfaction of employees in the new setting. In another result, if the employees feel difficulty in ease of use, the management can think of providing more training and support to those staff who are finding difficulties with the IT system. The analysis will not provide tangible results on business outcomes or measure financial performance. Conclusions The research is made to understand how business firms can manage the adoption of new IT implementations. The changes due to technology must be managed to ensure employee satisfaction and acceptance to the new system. The research is done using a survey questionnaire to understand employee perceptions to embrace change as new IT implementation affects their work significantly. The data is analyzed and from the results, insights can be obtained for the management to overcome issues due to changes. The research is done to understand employee perceptions to change at the organizational level. Further research on this topic can consider cost-benefit analysis in new IT and on how cost can be impacted due to employee adoption problems. References Ajzen, I (1991) The theory of planned behaviour, Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Process. 50, pp.179-211 Banerji, Sanchita B. (2013) A study of issues and challenges of implementation of information technology in HR, Global Journal of Management and Business Studies. 3 (4), pp.435-440 Barton, D. and Kraus, W. (1985) Implementing New Technology. [online] Harvard Business Review. Available at: [Accessed 10 Mar. 2016]. Cooper, R. and Zmud, R. (1990) Information Technology Implementation Research: A Technological Diffusion Approach, Management Science, 36(2), pp.123-139. Daniel, E., H. Wilson and A. Myers (2002) Adoption of e-commerce by SME in UK - towards a stage model, International Small Business Journal. 20 (3), pp.253-270 Davis, Fred D. (1989) Perceived Usefulness, Perceived ease of use and user acceptance in information technology, MIS Quarterly. 13 (3), pp.319-320 Gorry, G.A. and M. S. Scott Morton (1971) A Framework for Management Information Systems, Sloan Management Review. 13 (1), pp.55-70 Klein, Katherine J. and Joann Speer Sorra (1996) The Challenge of Innovation Implementation. Academy of Management Review. 21 (4), pp.1055-1080 O'Brien, A. James and George M. Marakas (2011) Management Information Systems. 10th Ed. New York: McGraw Hill Irwin. Premkumar, G. and M. Roberts (1999) Adoption of new information technologies in rural small business, Omega, International Journal of Management Science. 27, pp.467-484 Raza, Syed Arshad and Craig Standing (2008) Systemic Problems in Information Technology Adoption and Use: A Systems Thinking Perspective, Report by School of Management, Faculty of Business Law, Edith Cowan University, Western Australia. Rogers, E. (1983) Diffusion of Innovations. New York: The Free Press. Saunders, Mark, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill (2009) Research Methods for Business Students. 5th ed. England: Prentice Hall for Pearson Education Limited. Tornatzky, L. and M. Fleischer (1990) The Process of Technology Innovation. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books. Tost, A (2010) Comment lines: The challenges of introducing new technology, Report by IBM Developer Works. Turner, Jon and Kenneth C. Laudon (1988) Information Technology and Management Strategy, Working Paper Series CRIS #178, GBA #88-26. Center for Research on Information Systems, Information Systems Area, New York University.pp.2-11 Weng, Fumei and Ming-Chein Hung (2014) Competition and Challenge on Adopting Cloud ERP, International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology. 5 (4), pp.309-314 Zolla, G. (1999) Information Technology Diffusion: A Comparative Case Study of Intranet Adoption, Report by Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 93943 USA, pp.1-2.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

The Eyes Have It Essay Example For Students

The Eyes Have It Essay The Eyes Have It is a book of adventure. While reading it, I got thesense that before it was written into a book, it was a Role Playing Game,and the Games Master had played the adventure, liked how his players hadconducted the adventure, and wrote it into a book. In this way it relatesto my topic heavily, as it IS a Role Playing Game. In another way itdoesnt relate to RPGs at all because its a book, and not a game. But itrelates to my topic in one pure sense its an adventure. All RPGs areadventures. We will write a custom essay on The Eyes Have It specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now The story begins as one Askar-Ben-Oba, son of the chief of the WolfNomads, must travel through a continent to marry his betrothed, one MariaGriswalda. Askar does not want to marry Maria, but he must. His tribe,the Wolf Nomads, was once a proud and happy race. They fought numerousbattles and won the battles and also the fear and respect of their allies. But over time, they had softened. The Spider Queen, an undead creature,had the plan to take over all of the Yeomanry. The Yeomanry is where thestory takes place, and is a huge continent where many different races andcultures live (like Asia and Africa put together with some aliens and snowthrown in.) the Spider Queen had the notion of destroying all this good forher own, and turning it into her black domain. She did. She casted aspell which made a huge black bubble. It spread like a plague and grew forleagues in every direction. Anything that entered this bubble never cameout. The Spider Queen threw her min orcs, demons, kobolds, etc. into thisbubble to plunder and destroy. This she did successfully. But one person would not take this sitting down. While the WoldNomads, who were far away and too far to really receive the effects of thisbubble, rested their haunches and became couch potatoes, one KathrynFern-Cliffe, daughter of King Buncombe the Green. Kathryn had the will andthe need to destroy the Spider Queen. This she did, with the help of amagical gem, the Eye of Tiros. Kathryn used the magic power within the eyeto destroy the Spider Queen. Once she was destroyed, life became normal inthe Yeomanry. Kathryn also had the job of rebuilding the destruction of theSpider Queen. But while the Wolf Nomads were deteriorating, and Kathryn rebuilding,Kranoch, a king of a region in the Yeomanry, was plotting revenge onKathryn. Her father had blinded Kranoch by an arrow while on an assaultraid, and Kranoch wanted revenge. Kranoch gathered his armies and the leftover minions of the Spider Queen, and made an army powerful enough todestroy Kathryn and her region of Sterich. Kranoch also wanted the Eye ofTiros, the magical gem, which he thought would cure his blindness. Withthis as his main driving force, he went on a rampage. Back to the Wolf Nomads for a moment. The Wolf Nomads were quicklydeteriorating. Askar-Ben-Oba, the son of the chief, was to marry MariaGriswalda, the daughter of a wealthy Nomad who had gone to Sterich and madea fortune. Marias sizeable dowry was badly needed to fund the Wolf Nomadsin their daily lives and to rebuild themselves into the powerful tribe theyonce were. The story all comes together as Askar sets out on his journey toSterich to marry Maria. On his journey, the Eye of Tiros is stolen, and heis framed as the thief when he sits in a seedy bar. The bar patrons foundAskar as the dupe and framed him with the crime. Askar is punished,searched, and found innocent. But he does not get away with the theftcleanly, as he is still the prime suspect. Askar gets an iron collar fitaround his neck, with a magic spell on it. The spell makes the collararound his neck shrink a little every day, so eventually it will stranglehim. His only escape is to find the Eye of Tiros so the collar can beremoved. .ueb26510b94db5c90e2d9660d3b061e75 , .ueb26510b94db5c90e2d9660d3b061e75 .postImageUrl , .ueb26510b94db5c90e2d9660d3b061e75 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ueb26510b94db5c90e2d9660d3b061e75 , .ueb26510b94db5c90e2d9660d3b061e75:hover , .ueb26510b94db5c90e2d9660d3b061e75:visited , .ueb26510b94db5c90e2d9660d3b061e75:active { border:0!important; } .ueb26510b94db5c90e2d9660d3b061e75 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ueb26510b94db5c90e2d9660d3b061e75 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ueb26510b94db5c90e2d9660d3b061e75:active , .ueb26510b94db5c90e2d9660d3b061e75:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ueb26510b94db5c90e2d9660d3b061e75 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ueb26510b94db5c90e2d9660d3b061e75 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ueb26510b94db5c90e2d9660d3b061e75 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ueb26510b94db5c90e2d9660d3b061e75 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ueb26510b94db5c90e2d9660d3b061e75:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ueb26510b94db5c90e2d9660d3b061e75 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ueb26510b94db5c90e2d9660d3b061e75 .ueb26510b94db5c90e2d9660d3b061e75-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ueb26510b94db5c90e2d9660d3b061e75:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Close examination of afterwards By Thomas Hardy Essay Askar knows his only way to survive is by finding the Eye. This hesets out to do. But during his quest, he gets captured by Sea Pirates,meets up with a dwarf with a flying ship, and eventually reaches Kathryn inher quest to find the Eye of Tiros. The Eye is wanted not only by Kathryn, Askar, and Kranoch, but by thegold dragons also. The Eye is the only thing that keeps them alive. TheEye was created especially for them, as forged by dragons. Its magic isthe fuel by which the dragons live by. And they want it back. As in a normal RPG, the story comes to a climax when all four of themajor characters in the story, Askar, Kathryn, Kranoch, and the leader ofthe gold dragons, Buelath, all clash in combat. The huge battle is foughtin the heart of the Yeomanry. Askar has helped Kathryn and also fallen inlove with her. By now the iron collar has been removed, as Askar helpedKathryn defeat a huge Medusa and rid the sewers of a vile beast. ButKranoch is still hell bent on getting the Eye to cure his blindness andkill Kathryn. And the dragons of regaining their life blood. The dragonsare slowly dying off, much like the Wolf Nomads. The climax reaches its height when all three of the major charactersbattle. Kranoch has waged incredible war by destroying most of theYeomanrys forces, and is ready for the kill. The dragons want their gemand their power is unmatched. Kathryn and Askar have the gem (it wasretrieved by Askar) and they have used it to thwart some of Kranochsplans. In the battle, Kranoch is defeated when his prime minister betrayshis king by wanting the gem for his own. The Prime Minister, Alamkamala,kills Kranoch in an attempt to retrieve the gem. This he does, and he getsthe gem, but he himself is destroyed when the dragons attack. The gem islost in the battle but the forces of the Yeomanry, led by Askar, get thegem. Kathryn leads a final bargaining session with the dragons. The dragonswant only the gem. Kathryn gives it to them, but the dragons also thinkthat the Yeomanry is not bog enough for the both of them. Askar negotiatesthat since the humans helped the dragons retrieve their life blood, thatthey should live together in harmony. The dragons agree. So, after theclimax, the only people left are the dragons, who are content that theyhave gotten their gem, and the Yeomanry, led by Kathryn and Askar. The plot winds down when Askar, who still has to go marry MariaGriswalda, fulfills his promise. But it is ironic to see that when hereaches Sterich and the home of Maria, that she had already married and ispregnant. Askar had been deemed dead, because he took so long. Askar,still not happy that he had to marry Maria, follows his heart and marriesKathryn. The story ends in the usual adventure manner, with no epilogueand leaving the reader in the dark about the Wolf Nomads and Askars past. But this would be the perfect story for another adventure. The story relates to my topic because the two are almost exactly alike. They share the same base, adventure. In a RPG, the people role play in anadventure. In the story, the same is accomplished, when the reader readsthe adventure. So, the next time you pick up a book and think how boring,just a lousy adventure think of how you might actually live it in arole playing game.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Stopping By Woods On Snowy Evening By Frost Essays -

Stopping By Woods On Snowy Evening By Frost In "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening," we have a man who stops in the woods to watch the snow fall. The speaker finds these woods to escape from the everyday stresses of life. My own interpretation is that the man finds himself at a critical crossroad in his life and he flees to these woods to reflect on his life. The woods that Frost illustrates are a representation of heaven. Although the man is turning to God for guidance, he is neither in nor near a church. Even still, he believes his location is irrelevant to God, who ultimately listens no matter what. In the second stanza, the horse is only a figment of his imagination. This "horse" is, in actuality, the speaker's own consciousness, a moment that we create something to relive the stress of our deepest emotions. It acts as an internal censor to keep us close to sanity, the value of life, and maybe even God trying to save his life. When he comes "Between the woods and frozen lake," he finds that he is at a crossroad in life. The speaker ponders what direction to take, whether to live as the moral man that he is, or to take the easy way out by taking his own life. Frost portrays "The darkest evening of the year," as the speaker comes to the end of his road. In the third stanza, while the speaker is giving "His harness bells a shake," he is really contemplating and asking himself if he should go through with the suicide. The restful imagery of "lovely, dark and, deep" provides a simple, peaceful, and calm feeling that attracts the speaker to suicide. He realizes that he had "promises to keep," but we can only hope that he decided to fulfill his obligations to God, his family, his friends, and most importantly? to himself. However, we will never know because as the poem comes to a close, there is no ending. Instead, the refrains only present a fade out and the poem is left open-ended. It is for us as readers to wonder if the speaker will create the only peacefulness that he knows or will he choose to remain the man that already exists.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Chapter 9 Meeting Technology Essays - Free Essays, Term Papers

Chapter 9 Meeting Technology Essays - Free Essays, Term Papers Chapter 9 Meeting Technology The introduction to technology can have impacts on the meetings, convention, and expositions industry. In this information age, technology becomes an indispensable part of our lives and it is very valuable and important to the meetings, convention, and expositions industry. Technology such as overhead projectors, telecommunications and computerized meetings can enhance meeting presentations and it can further affect meetings which is in the planning stages as the meeting planners can discover the invaluable capabilities of the technology advances and building relationship with the attendees with the availability of technology. The types of technology available to the meetings, conventions, and expositions industry includes visual presentation and projection media such as overhead and slide projectors and non-projection media and they can enhance the impression and retention if audience can see and hear the information. Technologies would be electronic writing boards, teleconferencing and closed- circuit television. Also, people will use video recordings in the meetings, conventions, and expositions The major disadvantages of technology is the cost, yet using technology in this industry is the key to success. Using independent audiovisual supplier for company to provide services needed for the meetings, conventions, and expositions by themselves is popular nowadays.The use of LCD panel, videoconferencing and three-dimensional imagery is also a popular technology now. Moreover, technology makes the work of meeting planning more easily and convenient and also saves the time for planning. Also, the promotional videotapes, fax machines and E-mail is very useful for successful planning. For how the technology can help the meeting attendee, the business center which is most likely for business travelers, telecommunication technology and computerized check-in and check-out contributed a lot for making meetings more successful.Thus, the introduction of technologies into the meetings, conventions, and expositions industry can enhance and enrich this industry and hence all areas in this industry can be impacted by the technologies used as it can provide outstanding services and further affect the future development of the meetings, conventions, and expositions industry. Chapter 10: changes affecting the meetings and conventions industryThere are three factors that affect the attendees to join a meeting, convention or exposition or not. The first factor is information and understanding about the payback for their time and money Second, is their expectation of how the meeting will enable them to grow personally or to allow them to indulge themselves and spend on quality activities or to allow them to do serious business. The last factor is the consideration of the area of service. Yet, the main reason for people to meet is to educate themselves and for building network. Since being a city for holding meeting, convention or exposition can generate huge amount of revenue, so big cities as well as the small cities want people to hold meeting in their cities. Also, they will invest in services and products to enhance their images. Spending money to have investment on expanding the current facilities, public transportation and airport access or develop the new one to equip themselves better and make travelers move conveniently. Also, promoting local tourist attractions can make the city more attractive for group business. On the other hand, the advantage of small cities is that they are cheaper than the big city to hold meetings and to do business in. Moreover, education is an indispensable part of the meeting, convention or exposition industry and the role of education continues to become a dominator in this industry into the next millennium. And educating the people to have professional mindsets and professionalism behavior is important to attend success in this industry as well as developing future leaders. The enhancement of technology, training and other skills needed to be a major strategy for the professional and trade association in the future. In order to enhance the competitiveness of the organization, it is important to have an international visions and missions in this globalized industry. Finally, we need to discuss about the logistic of planning an international meeting. We need to have a local host or host organization for handling the details of the event with a good communication and contact the tourism board about it. Also the registration of the event is needed and we should think of the security issues to enable

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Digital Marketing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Digital Marketing - Essay Example f McDonald’s monopoly, track my macca’s application, McDonald extended hours services, digital happy meals play zones, iced fruit smoothies application, angry birds campaign, out of home (OOH) promotion and kick the trash. However, the study has found that existing digital marketing strategy of McDonald lacks the structure and desired level of interactivity (OMahony, 2013). In such context, Truong & Simmons (2010) and Smith (2012) stated that success of digital marketing strategy for companies depend on three factors, 1- structure of the digital marketing plan, 2- interactivity of digital campaign and 3- control measures. On contrary, existing digital marketing strategy of McDonald lacks most of these three components. Therefore, gap in the digital marketing strategy of the company has been created. Therefore, in this essay, a recalibrated digital marketing strategy will be proposed that will help McDonald engage its target market in more efficient manner. Wertime & Fenwick (2011) defined digital marketing as future evolution in the field of marketing when companies will execute most of their marketing activities through digital channels and online mediums. Digital marketing activities are being incorporated through digital channels that are interactive in nature and provide opportunity to companies to execute personalized dialogue with customers. As like neural network, personalized dialogue creates multiple data points and behavioural information of customers. In such context, digital markets can use data points and behavioural information of customers to continuously improvise and optimize interaction with customers (Wertime & Fenwick, 2011). Gerzema & D’Antonio (2011) pointed out that digital marketing are being executed through variety of channels like social media pages of Facebook, Hi5, Twitter, LinkedIn or through web blogging or interactive games in web browsers like Google, Firefox etc or through YouTube videos. Montg omery & Chester (2011) stated

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Migration from Dominican Republic to Puerto Rico in the 80's Essay

Migration from Dominican Republic to Puerto Rico in the 80's - Essay Example The journey of the Dominican Republic was not an easy one but the fact remains that they were able to reach their destination using some boats by the name â€Å"Yolas†. This essay aims to discuss the Dominican Republics migration to Puerto Rico in the 80’s. (Ferguson and James) To start with, history has it that there is a close link between Dominican Republic and the Puerto Rico since the pre-Columbian times. This happened when the Arawak people who originated from the Amazon basin of South America came and settled in both territories. The fifteenth and the sixteenth century mark the starting point of the problems in the Dominican Republic when Spain conquered Dominican Republic as well as the Puerto Rico. Spain remained in control until the 19th century and during this time there was a gradual constant flow of people in both directions. The bureaucrats, soldiers, clerics, professionals, students, artisans and slaves were flowing to both directions. Precisely, there we re many exiles that moved from the Hispaniola Island of Puerto Rico in 19th century; this was due to political upheavals. (Falcon and Douglas) The political upheavals comprises of Spain cession of the Island to France, Haitian occupation of Santo Domingo and the Haitian Revolution of the 1804’s. ... a result of development swift when the Dominican sugar industry moved to the eastern province of San Pedro de Macoris, La Romana and Puerto Plata which attracted so many interested workers form the Caribbean island as well as Puerto Rico. (Bulmer) From this time the historians continued to document the growing number of the people from Puerto Rico in the Dominican Republic and especially in the 20th century. For instance the census done in Dominican showed that there were six thousand and d sixty nine Puerto Ricans living in the Dominican Republic. The religious affinities, linguistic and cultural likeness made the Dominicans and the Puerto Ricans to intermarry which made their second generation not to term themselves as the Puerto Rican but Dominican. However, the period between 1930 and the 1960 had a very minute number of Puerto Ricans migrating to the Dominican Republic and very few Dominicans migrated to Puerto Rico. In 1940 there was a drastic stop of Puerto Rican to the Domini can Republic. Similarly, there was a strict control coming from the Trujillo regime which made it very hard for the Dominicans to travel and only professionals, entrepreneurs and political exiles were able to move and settle in Puerto Rico. Nevertheless, after the death of Trujillo in 1961, there was a large-scale migration from the Dominican Republic to the Puerto Rico. Research shows that there was a dramatic growth of the Dominican population in Puerto Rico. (Moya and pons) There were two major factors that contributed to the migration of the Dominican Republic especially in the 80s. These comprises of political and economic factors. Firstly, the political factors largely contributed to the Dominicans migration. (Ferguson and James) For example, the earliest migrates were linked to the

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Indwelling Catheters and their Relation To Urinary Tract Infections Essay

Indwelling Catheters and their Relation To Urinary Tract Infections - Essay Example Catheter- associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are caused by bacterial infections (e.g. Escherichia Coli), which is the common bacteria (Lindsay, E. 2001). In our place of practice, which is a nursing home facility, there have been significant increase in the amount of catheter and non-catheter related urinary tract infections in the patients undergoing treatment in the hospital. Research has shown that5% of patients that come to the hospital per day has urinary tract infection. Common endemic infection outbreaks as well as colonization and infection with antimicrobial drug resistant microorganisms have become a common feature within long term care facilities (Lindsay, E. 2001, pg. 205). Catheter associated urinary tract infections entail increased morbidity, mortality and financial costs. The nursing home facility has a protocol in place to reduce the number of UTIs, but it is rarely being utilized, and, therefore the system needs to be modified. CAUTIs can be reduced by rem oving the catheters upon arrival to the facility. Health care professional must assess the patients for the prevalence of UTIs, since this is a very common infection within nursing home facilities. ... Working in a nursing home and rehabilitation (NH/R) sub-acute environment has many challenges deriving from staffing problems, such as shortfall in nurse to patient ratio of 14 to 20 besides the chances of endemic infections. My main concern is the increased rate of urinary tract infections in patients with urinary catheters whether it is from the hospital or in-house (NH/R). In my facility, newly admitted patients from hospitals have or had indwelling catheters. Within 48 hours of admission, a few of the patients have showed signs and symptoms of urinary tract infection such as fever, abdominal tenderness and frequent need for urination with complaints of burning sensation. In such cases, the normal practice is to commence the administration of antibiotics prophylactically after collecting their urine specimens. The elderly are prone to a decrease in fluid intake due to a decline in the thirst mechanism and enhancing the chances of UTI. Urinary Tract Infections are caused by poor as eptic techniques and, therefore, catheters should not be used for convenience but for exclusive medical purposes only. According to the Center of Disease Control (CDC), the appropriate measures for indwelling urinary catheterization are: acute urinary retention, accurate measurement of urine output in critical patients and patients requiring prolonged immobilization, such as unstable spine or pelvic fractures. (Dumont, C. &Wakeman,J. 2010.Pg. 29). I, therefore, encourage charge nurses to discontinue the use of catheters. Studies have shown that infections in long-term care facilities are highly prevalent in the United States. The most frequent infections within nursing homes